Conversion of the Roman Republic to the Roman Empireby Rit Nosotro
Change Over Time essay
Identify the events that led to the conversion of the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire.
In 509 B.C., Rome became a republic, a government in which power is controlled by the common people. It was under this Republic that Rome grew and expanded by conquest into the most powerful nation in the world at the time. As Roman territory increased, however, politicians and generals became more and more powerful and hungry for power. A series of events during the 1st and 2nd centuries B.C. led to the demise of the Roman Republic. Under the reigns of Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire was formed. The Empire was ruled by an emperor, who had complete control over his people. Power was no longer in the hands of the people, but Rome continued to prosper and expand for several centuries.
Under the Republic, senators were elected by the people to run the government. The vote of wealthy landowners counted for more than others and many elections were fixed by bribes. However, the common people still maintained a significant power in government affairs.
When Rome's Republic was formed, Rome was a mere small city-state, easily managed. However, as time went on, politicians found it harder to maintain the growing country. Extremely wealthy landowners, known as patricians, began to have more and more political power. After the second Punic War, marking the destruction of Rome's enemy Carthage, the Roman economy and trade grew at a fast pace. Rich landowners and merchants were able to buy up most of the country land. Under Roman law, only landowners could serve in the military, but with the rich owning the land, the number of available soldiers dwindled. This caused instability in the Roman military.
Tiberius Gracchus, an enthusiastic politician, was elected tribune, an important political office, in 133 B.C. He proposed several laws to reshape Rome into the honest, pure republic that it had once been. His propositions included giving an equal share of land to all citizens, limiting the amount of land one person could have, and allowing every free Roman citizen to vote (at the time, only residents of Rome could vote). Tiberius's ideas were very controversial, so he was murdered by a riot. His brother Gaius as tribune in 123 B.C., also attempted to pass these laws, but he too, was murdered.
More problems arose with the reforms of General Marius. In 104 B.C., he established a new law, which stated that people did not have to own land to be a soldier. This worked to strengthen the military. However, in return for their service, soldiers wanted to be granted land. Only under the general's influence over the senate could soldiers be granted that land. The result was that soldiers tended to trust the general more and be more loyal to him than to the senate. The generals started to gain significant political power in Rome.
In 88 B.C., Sulla was elected consul. He gained much power within the senate, and was the first one to challenge Marius' position, for until then Marius had been the most powerful man in Rome. A civil war erupted. Marius marched his army on Rome forcing Sulla to flee. Marius soon died, but his supporters continued the fight. Sulla came back with an army of his own and marched on Rome, declaring himself dictator in 82 B.C. He died in 78 B.C, but his reign encouraged others to grab absolute power over Rome.
After Sulla's dictatorship was over, Rome temporarily went back to being controlled by the senate. Meanwhile, Pompey, the most distinguished general of the time, was gaining public favor from his many military victories. At the same time, Crassus, the wealthiest man in Rome, also gained much popularity from the common people, for defeating a large slave uprising. Each held the ambition of someday ruling Rome. Another prominent general who was gaining popularity was Julius Caesar. Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar made a secret alliance to work together to gain control over the senate. This alliance became known as the First Triumvirate.
Caesar was elected consul in 60 B.C. He proposed laws that would gain the triumvirate even more power. When these laws were opposed, Crassus and Caesar resorted to violence and intimidation in order to get them passed. After a short time, the First Triumvirate began to crumble. Crassus was killed in battle in 53 B.C. Caesar, after his term as consul ended, was given a governorship of the area of southern France. Unheeding the word of the senate, Caesar raised his own army and led a path of conquest throughout all of Gaul.
After 8 years Julius Caesar returned. The senate was afraid that he might march on Rome with his loyal army. The senate's fears proved correct. Pompey could not organize a counter offensive in time to save Rome, so he was forced to flee. Caesar marched into the city and appointed himself dictator. While the senate still existed, it was practically powerless against Caesar's commands.
Desperate politicians Brutus and Cassius plotted against Julius and eventually killed him, stabbing him in the back on March 15, 44 B.C. The conspirators believed that the senate would regain control of Rome. However, strong generals Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus unofficially established their power by intimidation through their armies. In the ensuing years the Second Triumvirate was formed. This consisted of Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Julius Caesar's nephew Octavian, who had demanded a position in the senate after Julius' death. The three men swept the senate with terror, killing Cicero, who was the greatest supporter of the republic.
Brutus and Cassius retaliated by raising an army against the triumvirs. However, Antony met their army and, after fierce fighting, defeated it. Brutus and Cassius killed themselves after viewing their defeat.
Now, Antony and Octavian received no more opposition from the senate and were supreme rulers. They were powerful enough that they didn't need Lepidus anymore, so they betrayed him by knocking him out of their alliance. Antony took control over Eastern Rome, while Octavian controlled Western Rome. After a few years, in 36 B.C. Octavian, needing an excuse to wage war on Antony, accused him of being disloyal to Rome by becoming involved with Cleopatra of Egypt. Octavian attacked Eastern Rome and defeated Antony. Octavian, who had changed his name to Augustus, was finally supreme ruler over Rome.
The republic had died. While the senate still existed, it had little say in government matters and could certainly not challenge the word of the emperor. Ten Caesars came after Augustus to rule over Rome. Despite the crippling of the Republic, Rome continued to prosper and expand for several centuries until its eventual decline.
QuickQuiz:1. The First Triumvirate consisted of which of the following
a. Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, Sulla
b. Pompey, Crassus, Cleopatra
c. Pompey, Crassus, Julius Caesar
d. Octavian, Brutus, Marius
2. The Second Triumvirate consisted of which of the following
a. Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus
b. Octavian, Julius Caesar, Tiberius Gracchus
c. Sulla, Crassus, Pompey
d. Gaius, Cicero, Bill Clinton
3. Octavian accused Mark Antony of being disloyal to Rome by:
a. murdering Julius Caesar
b. leading an army into Rome
c. getting involved with Cleopatra
d. falling off his horse too many times
4. Tiberius Gracchus's proposals included all except:
a. giving an equal share of land to all citizens
b. limiting the amount of land one person could have
c. allowing every free citizen to vote
d. granting absolute power to a dictator
Answers: 1c, 2a, 3c, 4d
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