Foundations to 600 AD
Dictionary of World History
A.D.- Anno Domini. Latin for “the year of our Lord”. After Jesus was born, dates were labeled with “A.D”. Now its politically correct to use C.E. but who cares about dating systems?
Alexander the Great- Born in 356 B.C., he was a famous Greek conqueror.
Apostasy- Turning from God or religion. Synonymous with secular humanism.
Aristotle- (384-322 B.C.) He was Plato’s best student. He is known for his works on logic.
B.C.- Before Christ. B.C. is used in reference to dates before Christ. The Ivory Tower folks are pushing for BCE (Before the Common Era).
Civilization- A culture with people who have settled in an area and worked together to build a society in which science, the arts, and a form of government are produced.
Confucianism- [Kun-few-shun-is-um] K’ung Fu Tsu or Confucius (551- 479 B.C.) created this philosophy. It is based on the belief that moral character is a necessity in life as well as keeping the wisdom that people discovered in the past. A big part of Confucianism is remembering and honoring anscestors.
Constantine the Great- (280-337 A.D.) He was a roman ruler who promoted Christian growth and relocated the capital to Constantinople.
Divine Will- A theory that God controls everything and has a concrete plan for the future.
Fertile Crescent- A region near the Mediterranean Sea that is in the shape of crescent or half moon.
Feudalism- [Few-duh-lis-m] A system in the past that said the more land one owned, the richer he became. The wealthy Lords gave people land and the poor people known as “serfs” worked on the land in exchange for protection and safety.
Great Men Theory- The belief that a “great man” or “great woman” would change the future by being at the right place at the right time.
Hakham-Anish- (700?-675? B.C.) Also called Achaemenes, was the first Persian ruler.
Ham- One of Noah’s 3 sons. Ham’s genealogy traces back to black people groups from Africa. The Aborigines of Australia are also descendants of Ham.
Hammurabi’s Code of Law- [Ham-ur-ab-ee] A group of 285
laws that Hammurabi, a great Babylonian ruler, wrote. The best know law is as
If a freeman destroys the eye of another freeman, his eye shall be destroyed. If anyone breaks a freeman’s bone his bone shall be broken. If a freeman knocks out the tooth of a freeman of his own rank, his own tooth shall be knocked out.
Heliopolis- [He-li-op-oh-lis] The Greek definition is “city of the sun”. The Heliopolis is Ra’s center of worship.
Herodotus- [Hair-oh-du-tis] (485-425? B.C.) A Greek storyteller and historian.
History- God’s story. True facts of past occurrences, actions, people, places etc.
Huns- Nomads who originated in Mongolia. They were known for their raids on China.
Japheth- [Jay-peth] One of Noah’s 3 sons. Japheth’s descendants were Indo-European’s who resided in Caucasus until 2000 B.C.. This is where we get the term “Caucasian”. The Japhethites produced new literature, philosophies, artwork and modern science.
King Nebuchadnezzar- (630-532 B.C.) He was a ruler, conqueror, and commander. His famous capital was Babylon where he owned one of the Seven Wonders of the World, the hanging gardens.
Lapis Lazuli- [Làz-ul-ee] A purple gem found in Afghanistan. Lapis Lazuli is semi-precious and was used by Sumerians and Egyptians in 3000 B.C.
Mandate of Heaven- A Chinese theory that the first emperor of a dynasty had the right to rule. This right was given from heaven and whenever a ruler failed, his right was taken away and given to another person.
|Noah- (4452-3502 B.C.) He was told by God to build an ark because God was going to send a flood to destroy the earth. He, his family, and two animals of every kind lived on the ark while everything and everyone on earth perished. God sent a rainbow after the flood as a promise that He would ever flood the whole earth again.|
Pantheon- A group of gods.
Pharaoh- [fair-oh] An ancient Egyptian king. Pharaohs were worshipped and pyramids built in their honor.
Plato- [Play-toe] (427-327 B.C.) Socrates’ student who became a teacher. He believed that there were 3 classifications for people: warriors, philosophers, and workers.
Ptah- [ta] The mythical Egyptian god who created the world.
He is the god of all gods who has always existed.
Ptah written in Egyptian hieroglyphics
Pure Race- People who have lived together for a long period of time and have their own specific features. Over time, they develop unique ideas and language.
|Pyramid- [Peer-a-mid] A large triangular structure built in ancient times. The Egyptians used them for tombs.|
Secular Humanism- A form of religion that believes in humanistic values. Placing man before God. The thought that man is practically a god.
Shem- (3950-3350 B.C.) One of Noah’s 3 sons. Shem’s family line furthered spirituality; they founded Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Socrates- [Sok-ra-teez] (470-399 B.C.) A Greek philosopher. He believed that by asking questions about life, he would obtain answers. He invented the Socratic Method; when being questioned he retorted with provoking questions instead of answers.
Taoism- [dow-is-m] A popular religion that began in 440 B.C. Tao is a supernatural force that flows through everything and controls everything.
|The Ten Commandments- Also known as The Decalogue, they are a group of laws given by God on Mount Sinai to Moses. They tell us how to live our lives morally and spiritually in accordance with God.|
Tower of Babel- A skyscraper built after the flood in 3467 B.C.; the plan was to make the building reach to heaven. It was built in the Euphrates valley as a religious temple.
|Ziggurat- A temple with numerous sets of stairs climbing to the top of the building. It was used as a place where one could climb up between the earth and heaven. Here is a modernized version of something that does NOT resemble a ziggurate. :-)|