The Babylonian Captivity (1305 – 1375) A period of time when the popes resided at Avignon because they could not agree who would be pope.
Battle of Hastings (1066) The battle in which William the Conqueror and his army of Normans took over England.
Battle of Agincourt (1415) A battle between Henry V of England and the French. The battle was won by the English.
The First Crusade (1095 -1099) Started by Pope Urban II. This crusade ended with the capture of Jerusalem and the massacre of most of its inhabitants by the crusaders.
Chivalry: The medieval system of knighthood which covered three main areas of a knight’s life, the military, social, and religious.
Excommunication: A punishment given when a person committed a large offense against the Catholic church. They were no longer allowed to have anything to do with the church; they were not allowed to attend services, partake of communion, or receive any other sacraments.
Feudalism: A political and social system used primarily in Western Europe.
Guild: A group that skilled craftsmen of the same trade often organized in medieval times. They would make sure that each craftsman part of the guild produced things up to standard and sold them for a reasonable price. Being a member of a guild showed that you were a proficient craftsman and gained you more respect in society.
Holy Roman Empire: A political group of countries in Europe in the Middle Ages which consisted of, at its height, Germany, Prussia, Hungary, Bohemia, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of France and Italy. This Empire lasted from approximately 962 to 1806, although not all the above countries were a part of it for the entire time.
Hundred Years War (1337 – 1453) It was a war between France and England over the kingship of France.
Interdict: An act the Pope could put the church under which prohibited the congregation from participating in any sacraments, church services, weddings, or funerals.
Lollards: The followers of John Wyclif were called by this name and were considered heretics by the Church of England.
Magna Charta (1215) The beginning of democratic government in England. It was signed by John I and it was a document that gave rights to all citizens of England.
Monastery: An institution for monks to live in once they were under their vows.
The Order of the Garter: The English order of chivalry which was begun by Edward III.
Pilgrimage: A journey which people often took to a sacred place, often the burial place of a saint.
Relic: An object which is thought to be very important because of its relationship with a saint or a martyr.
Salic Law: A rule that controlled the succession of royal families in Europe.
Serf: A servant laborer in the feudal system.
Tournament: A mock fight which often took place in Medieval Europe for enjoyment and entertainment.
Wars of the Roses (1455 – 1487) A number of battles fought in England between the house of Lancaster and the house of York, both of whom were directly descended from King Edward III of England.
Westminster Abbey: A abbey located in England which was built by Saint Edward the Confessor and was consecrated in 1065 B.C.
Wimple: A head covering worn by women in Medieval times.
Knight: A man-at-arms honored for brave service of a feudal lord.
The Black Plague: A plagued that ravaged Europe in 1347 A.D. It killed nearly one third of Europe’s population.
Beowulf: An epic poem written in 750 A.D. It was the first epic poem to be written in Old English.
Carolingian Dynasty: A Frankish dynasty that stretched from 752 to 911.
Vikings: Groups of Norsemen who plundered areas off the coast of Europe during
the 800’s through the 1100’s.
The Early Middle Ages: A time period in Medieval Europe that started in 600 A.D. and ended in 1050 A.D.
The High Middle Ages: The years between 1050 and 1300 are often referred to as the High Middle Ages.
The Late Middle Ages: The Late Middle ages began in 1300 and ended around 1500.
Cardinal: An official of the Roman Catholic Church who is just below the Pope.
Gothic Architecture: Gothic architecture originated around 1140 A.D. It was characterized by huge stained glass panels, flying buttresses and pointed arches.
The Dominican Order: Sometimes called the Order of Preachers, The Dominican Order was founded in 1216 A.D. by Saint Dominic.
Battle of Poiters: (1356) An important battle in a war between the English
and French that occurred when the Black Plague entered France. The English defeated
the French in this battle.