Archipelago- [ark i pell’ ago] A group of many islands. Japan is an archipelago and contains more than 3,300 separate islands.
Buddha- [boo’ duh) Any representation of Buddha or teacher of Buddhism who has attained full Enlightenment. Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.
Buddhism- [boo’d izm] A religion that teaches that life is full of pain, and the only way to end the suffering is through Enlightenment, which lets one stop the cycle of birth and death that is otherwise inevitable. Although originally an Indian religion, Buddhism traveled to Japan. (See ENLIGHTENMENT).
Bushido- [boo shee’ doe] Literally “Way of the Warrior”, a code of chivalry for the Samurai, originating from Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto, and Zen. (SEE SAMURAI)
Calligraphy- A stylish manner of writing characters. The Japanese use three different methods of calligraphy: Kaisho, Gyosho, and Sosho. Kaisho is a series of lines, meticulously drawn in a square style and is not widely used by the Japanese. Gyosho is a semi cursive style and Sosho is a cursive style, both used by the Japanese because they take less time to write.
Ch’in Dynasty- (221-226 BC) A period in China which was dominated by Legalism (SEE LEGALISM). Under the rule of Shih Hwang-ti, China’s Great Wall was strengthened and its weights, measures, and writing system were unified. China got its name from this dynasty.
China- A country in eastern Asia, the third largest nation in the world. China contains between one-fifth and one-fourth of the world’s population.
Chondokyo- A religion that combines separate aspects of Buddhism and Christianity. This faith is practiced in South Korea freely however, all religions are discouraged in North Korea.
Confucianism- [kun few’ shun izm] A religion that stresses the worship of ancestors, honoring parents, love for humanity, and harmony in thought and action.
Confucius- [kun few’ shis] (551?-479? B.C.) He was a Chinese teacher and philosopher and he is now the most revered person in Chinese history. His teachings provided the basis for Confucianism.
Daimyo- [die ee’ moe] Japanese feudal lords who dominated Japan from the 12th to the 19th century.
Enlightenment- The belief that is characterized by human reason and changing political, religious, and educational doctrine. This belief is incorporated in the religions of Buddhism and Hinduism. (See BUDDHISM, ZEN)
|Filial Piety- The primary duty of all Chinese
towards their parents, which says a son
should continue the family lineage, and if his wife does not bare children, he should take on a second wife. Dying without a son was considered one of the worse offenses. A woman’s job was to serve her in-laws well, specifically her mother-in-law, and produce a son. Also included in filial piety is the obligation to take care of one’s parents when they become old and treat them with utmost respect.
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence- A 1954 Chinese agreement which proposed mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual nonaggression, mutual noninterference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.
Genghis Khan (1167? – 1227)- Mongol conqueror, fierce warrior, military leader, and ruler. Grandfather of Kublai Khan. (SEE KUBLAI KHAN)
Han Dynasty- (202 BC – 220 AD) The Ch’in Dynasty was overthrown by the Han Dynasty to its oppression and heavy rule. The Han created a stable, centralized government in China, and during this time, Confucianism became the predominant religion. Technology also began emerging during this era with the invention of paper, porcelain, and a primitive seismograph.
Heian Period- (794-1129 AD) A time of flourishing Japanese culture, including the development of writing and court culture separate from China’s influence. Buddhism also thrived during this time of remarkable stability.
Japan- A country off the east coast of Asia consisting of four main islands.
Kimchi (or kimchee)- The national dish of Korea; an Asian vegetable seasoned with ginger, garlic, and red pepper.
Korea- A divided country of eastern Asia. North Korea is called the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and South Korea referred to as the Republic of Korea. Separated by a armistice line which was established in 1953, each has its own government.
Kublai Khan (1215?-1294)- Founder of the Mongol Dynasty in China. Grandson of Ghengis Khan. (SEE GENGHIS KHAN)
|Kimono- [kim oh’ no] A traditional Japanese robe with wide sleeves and a broad sash.|
Legalism- Strict or excessive adherence to law or religious or moral code.
Mandate of Heaven- A Chinese philosophy that explained the reason for the success and failure of monarchs, states, and other rulers. At the fall of a dynasty, the explanation, according to the Mandate, was that it had lost the moral right to rule under heaven.
Putonghua- The common spoken language of China, also called guoyu, which means “national language”. Based on the northern dialect, Putonghua used Beijing’s pronunciations.
Rice- A cereal grass that is grown for its seeds and widely cultivated in southeastern Asia. Rice is a main staple of China, Japan, and Korea and eaten in a variety of ways.
Samurai- [sam’ ur eye] Warriors who served the daimyo by protecting the land and the peasants who worked the land. (SEE DAIMYO)
Shinto- [shin’ toe] A predominantly Japanese religion that focuses on the worship of nature and ancestors.
Shogun- [show’ gun] A chief Japanese military or political authority; Yoritomo Minamoto was the first leader to be given the title of shogun.
Tao- [dou] In Taoism, it is the principle that all things happen or merely exist. In Confucianism, it signifies the rational basis of human conduct.
Taoism- [dou’ izm] A traditional Chinese religion which encourages living a life of simplicity, not interfering with natural events, in order to be happy and in perfect harmony with the Tao. Believers in this religion hope to live longer and attain immortality.
Three Self Patriotic Movement - TSPM is an official effort since 1951 by the Religious Affairs Bureau (RAB) to bring all Christian churches in China under communist control. TSPM claimed to rid China of foreign "imperialist" influences by having churches be "self-supporting, self-governing, self-propagating." Pastors who submit to TSPM receive high government saleries. Pastors of unregistered "house churches" may be arrested and heavily fined. K.H. Ting, past president of the China Christian Council’s (CCC) Nanjing Seminary, calls this "the post-denominational period" of one ecumenical Church. The CCC forbids teaching from Revelation, forbids night time gatherings, and forbids persons under eighteen years old from attending worship services as part of their "Ten Don’ts," implemented in the 1980s.
Twenty-One Demands- An ultimatum presented by Japan to China on May 7th,1915, primarily requiring China to cease its leasing of territory to other foreign powers and to allow Japan to control Manchuria and Shandong. The Chinese agreed reluctantly to these demands on May 8th, 1915, fearing war with Japan. However, the demands were later annulled during the Washington Conference, which was held in 1921-1922.
|Yin Yang (or Yin and Yang)- Two principles in Chinese philosophy and religion: yin represents a dark, negative, feminine figure, and yang symbolizes a positive, light, masculine figure. Together they are believed to influence the destinies of other people and things. Also, some refer to the dark segment as the autumnal equinox, the light section as the vernal equinox, the dark dot as the summer solstice, and the light dot as the winter solstice, thus representing the entire celestial phenomenon of seasons and the cycle of the sun.|
Zaibatsu- [zye baht’ sue] Great banking and industrial companies of modern Japan, called keiretsu after World War II. Mitsubishi is a leading zaibatsu.
Zen- A Japanese Buddhist sect that teaches that one can obtain
Enlightenment by intuition achieved directly through meditation.